- 1 trading and available for sale securities
- 1.1 Trading and available for sale securities
- 1.2 3.1. Purchase of trading and available-for-sale securities
- 1.3 What is an 'Available-for-Sale Security '
- 1.4 BREAKING DOWN 'Available-for-Sale Security '
- 1.5 Available-for-Sale vs. Held-for-Trading and Held-to-Maturity Securities
- 1.6 Accounting for Available-for-Sale
- 1.7 Available-for-Sale Accounting Reporting
- 1.8 What is the Difference Between Held to Maturity, Trading, and Available for Sale Securities?
- 1.9 Available-for-Sale Securities (AFS)
trading and available for sale securities
Trading and available for sale securities
Accounting for trading and available-for-sale securities is similar. There are four (4) accounting events to consider:
- Purchase of marketable securities
- Receipt of related cash dividends
- Sale of securities (at gain or loss)
- Change in the fair value (i.e., market price) of securities at the end of an accounting period
The accounting treatment of the first three events is the same for trading and available-for-sale securities. The only difference between the two types of marketable securities is the accounting for the change in the fair value of the security.
Important to note, we are going to look at a simple example of accounting for trading and available-for-sale securities. We are not going to discuss such topics as transfers between categories, deferred income tax effects, impairments, presentation in the statement of cash flows, disclosures, etc.
3.1. Purchase of trading and available-for-sale securities
When a company purchases trading and available-for-sale securities, it records the short-term investment on the balance sheet at cost. The cost includes the purchase price and any incidental acquisition costs (e.g., brokerage commission, taxes).
Let’s assume that on December 1, 20X2 Busy Company (a fictitious entity) bought the following marketable securities:
What is an 'Available-for-Sale Security '
An available-for-sale security (AFS) is a debt or equity security purchased with the intent of selling before it reaches maturity, or holding it for a long period should it not have a maturity date. Accounting standards necessitate that companies classify any investments in debt or equity securities when they are purchased as held to maturity, held for trading or available for sale. Available-for-sale securities are reported at fair value; changes in value between accounting periods are included in comprehensive income until the securities are sold.
BREAKING DOWN 'Available-for-Sale Security '
Available-for-sale is an accounting term used to describe and classify financial assets. It is a debt or equity security not classified as a held-for-trading or held-to-maturity security — the two other kinds of financial assets. AFS securities are non-strategic and can usually have a ready market price available. The gains and losses derived from an AFS security is not reflected in net income (unlike those from trading investments), but show up in the other income comprehensive category until they are sold.
Available-for-Sale vs. Held-for-Trading and Held-to-Maturity Securities
As mentioned above, there are three classifications of securities: available-for-sale, held-for-trading and held-to-maturity securities. Held-for-trading securities are purchased and held primarily for sale in the short term. The purpose is to make a profit from the quick trade rather than the long-term investment. On the other end of the spectrum are held-to-maturity securities. These are debt instruments or equities that firms plan on holding until maturity. Available for sale, or AFS, is the catch-all category that falls in the middle. It is inclusive of securities, both debt and equity, the company plans on holding for a long period of time but could also be sold.
Accounting for Available-for-Sale
From an accounting perspective, each of these categories is treated differently as recorded on the balance sheet and income statement. In most cases, the accounting for available-for-sale securities is the same as the accounting for trading securities. Due to the short-term nature of the investments, they are recorded at fair value. For trading securities, the changes to the fair market value are recorded against operating income. However, changes in the value of available-for-sale securities are recorded as an unrealized gain or loss in other comprehensive income (OCI). Some firms include OCI with the income statement, while others provide a separate schedule detailing what is included in total comprehensive income.
Available-for-Sale Accounting Reporting
If a company purchases available-for-sale securities with cash for $100,000, it results in a credit to cash and a debit to available-for sale securities for $100,000. If the value of the securities declines to $50,000 by the next reporting period, the investment must be "written down" to reflect the change in the fair market value of the security, and this change is recorded as a decline in other comprehensive income. Likewise, if the investment goes up in value, it is recorded as an increase in other comprehensive income. The security does not need to be sold for the change in value to be recognized in OCI. It is for this reason these gains and losses are considered "unrealized" until the securities are sold.
Универсальный англо-русский словарь . Академик.ру . 2011 .
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What is the Difference Between Held to Maturity, Trading, and Available for Sale Securities?
Held to maturity securities are debt securities which the enterprise has the intent and ability to hold to maturity. These are reported at amortized cost.
Trading securities are debt and equity securities held principally for selling them in the near term. They are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included in earnings.
Available for sale securities include all other debt and equity securities, and are reported at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses are excluded from earnings and reported in a separate component of shareholders’ equity.
Trading securities are current assets. Cash flows from trading securities are operating cash flows.
The usual current/noncurrent criteria are used to determine the category in which to report held to maturity and available for sale securities. Cash flows from purchases and sales of available for sale and held to maturity securities are investing cash flows.
The transfer of a security between categories of investments is accounted for at fair value. At the date of the transfer, if the security is transferred:
- Into trading, unrealized holding gain or loss is recognized in earnings immediately.
- From trading, unrealized holding gain or loss will have already been recognized and is not reversed.
- From held to maturity into available, unrealized holding gain or loss is recognized as a separate component of shareholders’ equity.
- From available into held to maturity, unrealized holding gain or loss continues to be reported in a separate component of shareholders’ equity, but is amortized over the remaining life as an adjustment to yield.
A decline in value below carrying value that is other than temporary is recognized as a loss for available for sale or held to maturity securities. The cost basis of the individual security is written down to fair value. The new cost basis is not changed for subsequent recoveries in fair value.
Initially, basic financial instruments were traded in the market for simple purposes. For example, stocks were issued by companies to raise capital in order to fuel their business operations, bonds were issued by the governments, and the bondholders used to receive interest on these financial instruments. However, with the growing complexity in the financial market, a large number of financial instruments have been introduced in order to aid the investors. These financial instruments include, but are not limited to, forward contracts, future, swap, options, certificate of deposits, exchange-traded funds or ETFs, mutual funds, held-to-maturity securities, interest rate futures, bond futures, etc. Not only have these securities enabled investors to invest in a smarter way, but they have also allowed investors to make huge profits by tackling the rapidly changing market trends. Therefore, the purpose of these securities is to facilitate investment decisions by keeping an individual from losing a substantial amount of his money.
Available-for-sale securities and trading securities are two examples of such instruments. These securities are basically classified as trading or held-for-sale when they are bought. The purpose of buying available-for-sale securities is to hold them for an indefinite period or to manage exposure of the interest rate, liquidity requirements, and prepayment risk. On the other hand, trading securities are bought for the purpose of profit maximization through resale or market appreciation. To better understand the difference between the two, it is important to understand the features of these securities in detail.
Available-for-Sale Securities (AFS)
AFS are an example of an equity or debt instrument that is bought with the intention to resale before it reaches the maturity date, if it has one. AFS are not strategic in nature because they are not held for the purpose of trading, nor do they fall in the category of held-for-maturity. Moreover, they are readily available in the market at a market price.
Trading securities, on the other hand, are the financial instruments that are held with the intention to buy and sell in a short period of time, i.e., less than a period of twelve months. These are usually held by financial institutions for the purpose of buying and selling in the short term.
The Difference between Available-for Sale-Securities and Trading Securities
The following are some of the differences between the available-for-sale securities and trading securities:
Available-for Sale-Securities—As already mentioned, AFS do not have a maturity date, and they are usually held for a longer period of time than trading securities.
Trading Securities—These securities are kept for a shorter period of time because the management actively buy or sell them to make short-term gains for these investments. They are generally held for a period of a few hours or days, but it depends on the nature of the security and the market where it is traded.
Trading Securities—These securities are usually purchased with the intention to make profits in the short term. This is why they are not held for a longer period of time.
Available-for-Sale—These financial instruments are not actively managed with the intention to sell to make short-term profits. Instead, these securities are held and set by the companies at some point. Unlike trading securities, AFS are not purchased or sold actively as trading securities, nor are they held for an indefinite period of time to keep receiving returns on their investments. Instead, these instruments are readily sold in a market by the management.. In short, these are securities that might be retained for a longer period, but may also be sold as per the management’s decision.
Available for Sale Securities—Available-for-sale securities are abbreviated as AFS. They are reported in the financial statements at a fair value; wherein, the changes in value in a different accounting period go towards the comprehensive income until the securities are sold. However, when these securities are sold, the unrealized profit or loss in the other comprehensive income (OCI) is reversed, and the realized profit or loss goes to the income statement. The realized amount represents the difference between the selling price and purchase price.
For example, if AFS are purchased with a cash amount of $200,000, then the available-for-sale securities account is debited, and cash balance is credited with the same amount. However, if the value of AFS decreases to $100,000 by the next accounting period, the amount of investment will be reduced to fairly reflect the change that occurred in its fair market value. The decrease in value will be recognized in OCI. Similarly, if the value increases in the next accounting period, it should also be recognized in the OCI. AFS does not have to be sold in order for the change in its value to be reported in the other comprehensive income. This is the reason why they are known as ‘unrealized’ profits or losses until these financial instruments are sold.
Trading Securities—Trading securities are also reported in the financial statement at a fair value, but they are initially recognized in a financial statement at original cost. With the passage of time, the market value of these securities changes, and, by the end of one accounting period, if it is not sold, its fair value is compared with the original purchase cost to calculate any unrealized loss or gain. The fair value of trading security at the end of each accounting period is afterwards compared to the fair value at the end of the next accounting period along with any profit or loss recognized as income or expense during that period.
For example, if a trading security has a fair value of $1,500 in the last reporting period, and, as the current period ends, its value in the market reaches $1,800. The fair value adjustment will have to be accounted for by debiting $300 to a fair value adjustment account of securities, and by adding the remaining $1,500 in the trading securities account to reach a total fair value of $1,800 at the end of the period.
Available for Sale—The changes that occurred in the value of AFS are subsequently recognized in an account called unrealized gain or losses in the OCI. This account is basically found in the shareholder’s equity; hence, no amount is recorded in the income statement.
Trading Account—Unlike available-for-sale securities, trading securities are subsequently recognized as operating income in the income statement.
It is very important for an accountant to be familiar with the differences of these securities because it enables them to record them in the right period with a correct amount instead of undervaluing or over-valuing the above stated accounts. Similarly, investors should also know the difference between AFS and trading securities in order to see if these investments are in line with their financial goals. For example, if the intention of an investor is to sell securities for making a profit in the short term, then he or she should go for trading securities.